1 As usual Audrey Truschke distorts history by claiming Portugese introduced Marigolds to Indians. The truth is far more nuanced. Indians used marigolds for millennia - but the species we used was Calendula officinalis (Pot Marigold) not the S. American Tagetes used today.
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2 Calendula officialis was known since ancient times all over the world as marigold or pot marigold in European literature. Tagetes were introduced in 1500s as French/African marigolds. Calendulas got mixed up with Marigold in literature due to their similar appearance & colors.
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3 Tagetes arrived after 1492, replacing calendulas in every culture from China to India to Europe to US. In Sanskrit the flower is called Jhaṇḍū (झण्डू) in the 14th c.text Rajanighantu, written by Narahari Pandita. The Rajanighantu itself was dated wrongly due to this confusion
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4 Acharya P. Sharma dated the Rajanighantu to 17th century as it describes Jhaṇḍū (Marigold) & quotes Madanapalanighantu (1374 CE). But this confusion arose because in recent times Indians had started referring to Tagetes as Jhaṇḍū instead of the original Calendula flower.
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5 Narahari Pandita who wrote Rajanighantu was a disciple of Srikantha Pandita of Kashmir (1300-1360 CE) Narahari’s patron was Raja Narasimha 4 of Kalinga (r. 1378-1409 CE). Thus, Rajanighnatu was written between 1374 - 1409 CE, before the Portugese brought Tagetes to India.
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6 This proves Hindus used marigolds (Jhaṇḍū) long before the Portugese, but they used Calendula not Tagetes. Ancient terracotta plaques (300 -100 BCE) from Chandraketugarh, Bengal show clear visual evidence of Hindus using Calendula flowers as decorations since ancient times.
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7 Rajanighantu classifies Jhaṇḍū as bitter & astringent. This is clinching evidence as Ayurvedic texts refer only to edible flowers. Calendulas are edible but marigolds are toxic if eaten. Calendula smell sweet unlike marigolds, as Hindus prefer fragrant flowers for worship.
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8 For 1000s of years Hindus used Calendulas as Jhaṇḍū (marigold) not Tagetes. Calendulas were the original marigolds before Portugese brought Tagetes from S. America. Since Tagetes was prolific & easy to grow, it replaced Calendula all over the world & became the new marigold.
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9 It is important to observe & call out historical inaccuracies in the right context. Duplicitious & unethical people like Audrey exploit confusion to distort facts & build fake Hindumisic narratives. Her objective as always is to trivialize India’s contributions to history.

Aug 7, 2022 · 7:23 PM UTC

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10 References: Raja Nighantu & Dhanavantri Nighantu - Vaidya Narayana Sharma Purandare Biography of Narahari, the author of Raja-Nighantu - PVV Prasad & A. Narayana Journal of European Ayurvedic Society Vol 2, 1992 Marigolds and Calendulas - khkeeler.blogspot.com/
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Replying to @MumukshuSavitri
she is not taken seriously by her own people especially those who know what she is all about
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Replying to @MumukshuSavitri
Your thread shows that what Truschke said was entirely accurate and in no way a distortion of history. She said that marigolds of the kind used in Indian temples today came to India in the 16th century with the Portuguese; this is true, and you agree with it.
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What is your thread trying to prove? That the Portuguese introduced nothing? That Audrey Truschke is wrong even when she is clearly right? I must say I don't understand it. But thank you for the interesting info on earlier plants — quite helpful.
Replying to @MumukshuSavitri
Saw a video where she was confronted by a Hindu, he was stating facts. She was so irked and acting like she was high on drugs😄totally loved that.
Replying to @MumukshuSavitri
You proved 1Tagetes and Calendulas are different 2Tagetes was brought by Portuguese 3Tagetes replaced Calendulas since it was easy to grow when Audrey says Tagetes(Portuguese marigold) is being used currently across temples you call Duplicitous & unethical? doesn't make sense
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we all know her bad intention, buy technically she is correct it is our problem that we replaced edible, sweet smelling Calendulas with toxic, bad smelling Tagetes because it was easy to grow